A simple solution to the Senate problem:
The popular vote achieved by each party is equal to the percentage of senators the party can appoint to the Senate.
- No party may appoint any senator without at least carrying 5% of the vote.
- No party may appoint a candidate who has lost their riding in that, or the previous election campaign. i.e. If Joe Con loses to Jane Lib, the Cons cannot appoint Joe Con to the senate for 8 years.
Problems? I mean, other than that it just makes too much sense for anyone in government to take seriously...